Sun and its Movement

“(God is) the one Who created the night, the day, the sun and the moon. Each one is travelling in an orbit with its own motion” (Sura 21: 33).
Its rather obvious from what this passage depicts that the day and night depends upon the orbit of the sun and moon. In other words, contrary to what people exclaim about the sun's galactic orbit ( which can not be true as the constellations have not changed over thousands of years if the sun is moving at a speed of 4,50,000 mph ) the passage appears rather to describe the sun and the moon in parallel orbits.
It is not permitted to the Sun to catch up the Moon, nor can the Night outstrip the Day: Each (just) swims along in (its own) orbit (according to Law)(Sura 36: 40).

By the Sun and his (glorious) splendour; By the Moon when it follows it…(Sura 91: 1-2)
The context of the above 2 verses is clear in establishing the movement of sun...and this movement is it's cruising over the sky, causing the day night cycle..for sure these references are not relating to the so called solar Apex or Galactic movement of the sun...Coz such a movement has no connection to the alteration of day and night as the ayahs clearly establish…
It was narrated that Abu Dharr (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said to Abu Dharr when the sun set: “Do you know where it goes?” I said: Allah and His Messenger know best. He said: “It goes and prostrates beneath the Throne, then it asks for permission (to rise) and permission is given to it. Soon it will prostrate, but it will not be accepted from it, and it will ask for permission (to rise) but permission will not be given to it; it will be said to it: “Go back to where you came from.’ So it will rise from its place of setting, and that is what Allah, may He be glorified, refers to in the verse (interpretation of the meaning): “And the sun runs on its fixed course for a term (appointed). That is the Decree of the All-Mighty, the All-Knowing” [Yaa-Seen 36:38].

Shaykh Ṣāliḥ al-Fawzān said: “There is no doubt with us or with the Believers regarding that, that the Earth is stationary and that the Sun orbits around it, as do the stars and the other celestial bodies (aflāk), that they orbit the Earth. There is no doubt about this. This is what is evidenced in the Qurʾān and the Sunnah.”
Shaykh Bin Baz () said: “As for the one who said that the Earth [moves] in orbit and the Sun also moves, his saying is lighter than the one who speaks with the stationary Sun. However, this in itself is a clear error and opposes the preceding verses, sensory perception and outward reality. It is an avenue to the saying that the Sun does not move. Allāh has already made clear in the aforementioned verses that He placed the mountains in the Earth so that it does not move with them and [the word] mayd means movement (ḥarakah), shaking (iḍṭirāb) and motion (dawrān) as the scholars of exegesis and imāms of the [Arabic] language have textually stated. In the takfīr of the one who speaks with this saying there is some observation to be made because the evidences relayed regarding the stationary Earth and its rest and the absence of its orbit are not as clear as the evidences relayed regarding the motion of the sun and the absence of its rest.

It is also because those who affirm the orbital motion of the Earth present doubts which obligate the avoidance of [ascribing] disbelief to the one who spoke with that. But there is no doubt about the disbelief of the one who rejects the orbital motion of the Sun due to the clear definitive evidences regarding it”. (Al-Adillah al-Naqliyyah wal-Ḥissiyah ʿalā Jaryān al-Shams wa Sukūn al-Arḍ. (1402H) Shaykh Hamūd al-Tuwayjurī () said: “Allāh the Exalted textually stated the motion of the sun in numerous places in His Book. He textually stated that it swims in an orbit. He also textually stated that He brings it from the East. He also textually stated its طلوع] approach (as it appears to rise)], its تزاور [passing by], its دلوك and غروب] setting towards West]. The Exalted said: 'He has subjected for you the sun and moon in constant motion (دائبني ,(and subjected for you the night and the day.' (14:33). And الدأب is constant motion as has been textually stated by the leading scholars of the [Arabic] language and its meaning has been affirmed by the people of tafsīr. In these verses is clear proof that the sun is in motion and orbits the earth so as to enable the livelihood of people and their beneficial interests.” (Dhayl al-Sawā'iq (1390, p. 66)

Shaykh Muḥammad bin Ṣāliḥ al-Uthaymīn () said, “The alternation of the day and night is due to the Sun’s orbit around the Earth. Allāh subjected the Sun and the Moon for us, making them persistent [in their courses] and as two signs amongst the signs of Allāh indicating the perfection in His power and vastness in His mercy. Since Allāh the Exalted created them they both traverse in their orbits in accordance with the command of Allāh. They do not raise above, fall below or deviate to the right or left [from their orbits]. He determined phases for them [in their orbits] that you may count the years and measurement [of time]. Thus, by the variation in the phases of the moon we have [the variation] of the new moons and months. And by the varation in the phases of the Sun’s [orbit] we have the variation in seasons. When the Sun reaches the [position of the] furthermost northern constellations, the day’s [gradual increase in] length ends and the midsummer season is reached.

Then it begins to recede gradually until it returns to [the position of] the constellations [in the direction of] Yemen, and the [gradual] increase in the night’s length comes to an end and the midwinter season enters.” (Refer to Majmūʾ al-Fatāwā of the Shaykh (6/193) Ibn kathir(rah) on surah kahf tafsir - "....until, when he(Dhul Qarnain) reached the setting place of the sun, he found it setting in a spring of hami'ah(murky water)".(18:86). Meaning, he saw the sun as if it were setting in the ocean. This is something which everyone who goes to the coast can see: it looks as if the sun is setting into the sea but in fact it(sun) never leaves it's path in which it is fixed...". (Tafsir ibn kathir vol 6, page 205- 206)

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